Throughout last three decades of the history of our educational process which has been running against the clock for the purpose of achieving great expectations and high ambitions, our educational process has undoubtedly achieved what makes proud of this rich extent of the march of knowledge in its tremendous achievement.
The sunrise of the 23rd of July 1970 is the real starting point of the overall development in each field. And here we are harvesting the fruit of thirty years of a battle at all levels to catch up with the developed countries and our dear country Oman takes its suitable position among nations and countries.
A great deal of what we have been looking forwards to realize has been achieved by the help of Allah and then by the efforts of the devoted citizens of this country. The procession is still hastening steps , looking forwards to high aspirations to overtake with it the wheel of history, to let our educational experience be a lighthouse enlightening those looking for supremacy as well as the pioneers of educational reforms throughout the world. For the only fact that what has been achieved in our beloved country as to the scientific development that has gone beyond any imagination and anticipated every ambition.Education was in Oman confined in schools and Almasjeed workshops were taught by the Quran and learn the principles of Islam and the Arabic language and numeric. One of the most prominent schools of historic mosques in Oman Alrahyal school established by the scientist Mahbob Ben Alrahyal in Sohar and Qasraa village school the Institute of Bayada Balrstak mosque and a Aldharh school in Bahla, Abu Muhammad Abdullah Bin Baraka Pahlawi established it and spent his wealth, and another school in Nizwa called Alqalah.
Thus continued the march from generation to generation to graduate scientists and leaders where these schools and mosques credit for time immemorial in the graduation of many scientists, literary and talented who enriched our heritage treasures Omani jurisprudence of science and unification, and ammunition language, poetry is the most prominent scholars of these schools, but not limited to: Bashir Ben Almonther and Abu Moosa bin Abi Jaber Alazkoi, Almoneer bin Alneier Al-Riyami Algalani, Mohamed Bin Al-Mualla Alkindi and
Salama Ben Muslim Alaotbi.
Because of the scarcity of the spread of formal education before the year in 1970, what had prevailed in the education of children, is taught by teachers of the Quran and teachers, who taught children under the shade of trees or in the public boards known (Balsplh) or in mosques or the homes of teachers themselves , and most of the young students aged between six and fourteenth, and students who recited the Quran known as (Seal of the Quran) and terminate after students concluded the Quran to join a circle in mosques, which linked its existence qualified scientists qualified, especially in the states and Alrostaq and Nizwa which are two of the Community of scientists, as well as science workshops to be held in each of Bahla , Snaw , Alamadibi , Algavat and Alhamra, and the students were given scolerships. There were no clear criteria for evaluating education, but the quality of keeping the Quran is the sole criterion of excellence students.
First: traditional education:
The Quranic schools and workshops schools are the only means of education in Oman until in 1970 where they have been spread in most villages despite differing levels from one region to another is the most prominent of these schools since the late nineteenth century: -
1 / school of Masjeed Al Khor in Muscat (1871-1888 m)
This school was founded in Muscat next to Castle Galali in the era of Sultan Turki bin Said in Masjeed Alkhor and the first to teach in front of the Masjeed where Sheikh Suleiman bin Mohammed bin Ahmed Alkindi, where he taught the Quran and the fundamentals of religion and science Arabic reading, writing and grammar.
2 / School of Al Zawawi in Muscat (1871 m):
Created in the era of Sultan Turki bin Said and was located below the Castle Galali Muscat and continued education to the era of Sultan Said bin Timor and the material taught was the holy Quran and the Arabic language reading, writing and the order.
3 / School of Sheikh Rashid Bin Aziz Alkasibi :
It was based in his home, where he receives a number of students of science and it is taught religious sciences of the Arabic language in a statement, the logic continued to lead this task nearly forty years and pupils at the school went poet Mr. Badr bin Hilal AL-BUSAIDY.
4 / School of Masjeed Alwakeyel :
Located in Muscat against Beit Mr. Nader Bin Faisal which has included a number of science students who performed by the poet Sheikh Mohammed bin Sheikhan Alsalmi and the most known is Timor bin Faisal, and Mr. Nader Bin Faisal in the era of Sultan Faisal bin Turki.
5 / School of Biat Alwakeyal (1888 m -1913 m):
Set up this school near the house known as Bait Alwakeyal which is resides of government official entrusted with the conduct of certain matters relating to the Sultan's Palace and the material taught there were Quran, fiqah and Arabic.
6 / School of bothiynah (1914 m -1930 m):
, Attributed to Muhammad Ali Bothinah, who delegated from Tunisia to the Sultanate in the era of Sulatn Timor Sultan bin Faisal, and he was teaching at the School Zawawi In this school girls participated in the receipt of the circle with boys in a house rented in Muscat for this purpose and interprets this established early coeducational some schools today. The school continued operating starting in 1914 and materials taught ware Quran , the Arabic language, history, geography , arithmetic and characterized the school as well as adopting a plan seminar included six daily quota and the number of students (120) students studying in all rooms, large-In in 1930 he moved to Alsultaniyah school which was first established by the government and from the student who studied at the School of Bothainah Al Sultan Said bin Timor and Mr. Shihab bin Faisal.
7 / School of Sohar (1924 m):
Founded by Mr. Hamad bin Faisal bin Turki in 1924 and its located against Sohar Castle in the north and included more than one hundred students from various areas and villages surrounding Sohar and was taught the Quran , the Arabic language and the modern, grammar and arithmetic and the line has supervised the school Sheikh saker bin Hamad
8 / School of Mr. Nader Bin Faisal (1932-1935 m):
Education began in this school in the era of Sultan Said bin Timor. One of the teachers Sheikh Ahmed bin Suleiman bin Zahran Al-Riyami,who was teaching the Quran, standardization and doctrine and the Arabic language and numeric which have collected a number of school boys and girls and form students of this school with students of a school mosque Khor School Bowl in the second year in 1935.
Other schools which have had a presence in the memory of education to the children of Oman the School of (Beit Albaroni) in Smael and (Mohammadia School) in Musandam.
Second: the beginnings of formal government education:
Began shifting from traditional education to regular education in the modern sense in 1930, where established schools are limited to the planning and supervision of government and curricula are taught specific content and multiple materials and examined by teachers hired by the State Department and the schools also certain, and a scarcity of these schools on the basis of formal education in Oman year ago in 1970 and some of the well known schools
1 / The first Sultaniyah school:
Established in 1930 during the era of Sultan bin Faisal Timor under the supervision of government
ant it was located in Muscat and run by Ismail bin Khalil Alrasasi who arrived from Palestine to Oman year in 1929 and later became director of knowledge in the era of Sultan Sultan Said bin Timor until in 1970.
Some teachers have participated from the Arab countries in this school, teaching the material taught by the Quran, standardization and doctrine and the Arabic language, science, health, history, geography and civic education.
2 / The second Sultaniyah School:
This school has been replaced from the previous school year in 1935 and was based in a house rented Muscat included along with a number of boys from girls, and the school is working full-time and studying the Quran and Islamic jurisprudence, standardization and the Arabic language has enjoyed the article Arab line quality copies in the area and this school special attention because documents and transactions were then write handwritten, as are songs and teaching English language, history, geography , civic education and numeric, health and sports.
The study then begin preliminary in grade I, II and III of the primary stage.
3 / Saidyah School in Salalah:
This school is the first school for boys in Dhofar Governorate. It Can be divided with regard to aspects of education and development at the school several times since beginning the first period opened by Al Sultan Said bin Timor School Saidyah school in Salalah (Muharram 1355 e / March 1936) was composed of three rooms, one dedicated to students and the second involving young adults , and the third room was used as a storage. The only education in the school on the Quran and teaching improvement and debt things easy, especially regarding the five Elements of Islam in addition to reading and writing in addition to the four operations for the account (and substractions addition, multiplication and quotient), the school has seen many developments was the most important year in 1955 where they were building a new building has been designed for the purpose of education and was not merely a rented place like its predecessor schools.
4 / Alsayidyah school in Muscat:
This school was opened in 1940 and stopped opening activities by the previous school in Muscat to begin a more advanced stage of formal education and government who are in school buildings prepared specially for this purpose included the classrooms, conference management, teachers and seminars consisted of two phases: the first phase of the pre-primary The two-year scoping, and the second phase is the primary period of six years, given the successful certificate issued by the Trial Chamber knowledge, has taught a number of Omani teachers and others from the brotherly Arab countries, and the textbooks are taught in Alsaidiyah school in Muscat was brought from Egypt and Palestine such as: reading as obviously good, either wrote mathematics, science, history, geography and some of the Arabic language books were provided to Lebanon .
Islamic education material received a great deal of interest among school materials Besides the Quran there was a book (teach boys .. necessary rights) to Sheikh Noureddine Abdullah bin Hamid Alsalmi, and the school was studying the activities of the class activities included representation and sports, trips and confirmation of the importance of the Arab line rule, the Sultan Said bin Timor in in 1944 donated school students set of pamphlets Arab line known as a gold chains, a group that prepared Najib Alhoowiny calligrapher private King Fuad I, king of Egypt, to al-Sultan bin Faisal Timor in in 1931.
5 / school Saidieh Matarh:
This school opened in November 1959 and was then based in Beit quoted sailors North Matrah curriculum for a year and a few months of the following year.
The study began this school about two hundred students in the introductory classes, I and II
In December 1960 the headquarters of the school moved to set up its own building, in the position which currently exists, and opened the same year in two rows of the third and fourth magistrates.
During the two years after that completed primary school until sixth grade primary, and became successful of this graduating class and receive a certificate of First Instance. The first class graduated in 1963.
Had these schools mentioned despite their modest addition to workshops in Masjeed great merit of the graduation of many intellectuals, scientists, writers who have been credited with the revitalization of cultural and intellectual movement in the Sultanate of Oman and enriching heritage treasures from the various sciences.
III / private schools:
In addition to formal government schools there were regular schools in special education services provided invaluable notably:
- Private schools in Matrah :
This school Characterized of actively intensive education since in 1925 where he was the number of regular schools for them:
1-School of Mohammed Jawad bin Darwish
2-School of Baker Bin Murad Ramadan
3-School of Jawad bin Jaafar Alkhabouri
4-School of Hassan bin Ali Hashim
5-School of Mohammed bin Ali bin Taqi who
6-School of Abdullah Bin Ali Bin Abdullah Al Mohammed
7-School of Kasim bin Abdullah bin Mohammed
8-School of Abd al-Rida Bin Ali Bin Abdullah
This was the school acquired permits from wali matrah with a government supervision from the knowledge and the premises of a house has been used as schools and the number of students ranges from 150 to 300 students in each school and were taught availability from Lebanon, India, studying the Quran and Arabic language and the English language , numeric and geography have characterized some active sports, cultural and educational services were provided for a fee paid by students.
Ghazali school in Sur :
The first school of order especially in Sur was inaugurated in the era of Al Sultan Said bin Timor year in 1948 and founded the Muslim Brotherhood Alawi and Abdullah, who are son of Ahmad Ghazali and it was built at the expense of the elderly and people of the mandate of Sur.
Education Renaissance after July 1970:
when His Majesty Sultan Qaboos bin Said ruled the country in the third century of July in 1970, where he was commander of His Majesty the holy education and circulation of the country's most vital objectives of the blessed renaissance, Omani people have been deprived of education before the year in 1970 except Majesty said little at the beginning of the march renaissance "education was the most important concern to Bali ... We felt it was necessary to extend the first efforts to disseminate education." The education sector has witnessed after the dawn of the Renaissance quantum leap and a huge quantity as a basis for building the Omani citizen and creating a generation who believes unable to shoulder its responsibility in the building of the national and keep up the steady shift in the modern life of the other.
- Education throughout the Sultanate:
Educational Renaissance march started in various states and regions of the Sultanate and with great rush to compensate the loss of the sons of the country increased the number of schools teaching of only three schools of about (900) students in 1970 to (207) schools and about (55752) students in the academic year 1975 / 1976.
With the school year 1972/1973 Preparatory education started and then the secondary education for the first time in the Sultanate year 1973/1974 .
The education budget jumped in the country of one million and thirty-nine thousand and seventy RO in the academic year 1970/1971 m to seven million, three hundred ninety and two thousand and sixty one rial in 1981/1982.
Continued education as quickly surpassing time and short distances and to this huge turnout and the steady expansion in the large numbers of students and schools have been using the curriculum and books from some Arab countries, and the Sultanate of teachers borrowed from sisterly and friendly countries.
The buildings not only to build schools materials were fixed, but the use of the leased premises, buildings built of materials not fixed tents .Also this period witnessed the beginning of the activity of literacy and adult education in order to create a balance between formal and informal education as well as providing special education services for children with special educational needs of the ministry firmly eligibility this category in obtaining education as their peers opening chapters attached to the education of the deaf and dumb also been using institutes disabled sister in the States.
- Start planning and qualitative development in education:
With the beginning of the school year 76/1977 and After establishing the structure of the different levels of education in the Sultanate, entered the planning stage of scientific education in a manner consistent with the five-year plans of the State:
(A) First Five Year Plan (76-1980):
This development plan has been focusing on the development of educational services and diversify the education establishment two preparatory professional model schools and the establishment of institutes specializing in technical education to accommodate obtaining the certificate prep Among these institutes , Nizwa agricultural Institute, institutes of teachers and secondary school business in addition to representatives of religious education at the Institute Islamic secondary also included planning to improve the quality of the school building replacement schools unserviceable educationally which was rented or that the articles were not fixed tents .
Established schools based materials provide the necessary facilities and laboratories, libraries, workshops professional activity, especially in primary schools, which grew into a junior high in the same year was the establishment of the first school for people with special needs is a school of hope for the deaf and dumb equipped with an internal Department in Muscat and to provide educational programs commensurate with the capabilities of this category of children in an attempt to education and rehabilitation to help them to grow and integrated well prepared for working life and to participate in society and increased numbers of students since the opening of school until hope reached (309) students in the academic year (2005/2006 )
The statistics below show the comparison between the first and last years of the plan:
The school year / elements education 1976-1977 1981-1980 growth rate during the period 1976-1980
Schools 261 373 42 .9
People 1992 3618 81.6
Students 64975 106032 63.2
Teachers 2553 5150 101.7
With regard to the preparation of university students abroad has doubled to almost at the end of the plan, they were prepared in various disciplines in 76/77 (509) students and students, hit their numbers (939) students in 1980/1981 and thus accounted for the increase (84%) .
(B) The second five-year plan 81-1985 :
Starting from the second five-year plan continued march educational renaissance in two directions: education, in terms of the qualitative development has on the other hand in order to entrench the positives achieved the first five-year plan and avoid the negative aspects , where continued new elementary schools and alternative deployment and increased integrated junior high schools, which brings together Stages, junior high schools were provided laboratory, library and classrooms operator and family education for girls schools, and institutes for teachers has been developed and become accepted limited to obtaining the general secondary schools to become medium and period of study by two years, starting from the academic year 84/85 with the liquidation of the middle and three years seminar, and established a trading school for girls before to testify in prep school at the year 1983/1984 in addition to the emergence of secondary industry education where at the opening of a school at al batinah zone in the same school year was requested from the male category only in the academic year following the inauguration of the alfikriyah school in Muscat category to accommodate students with mental disability to make rehabilitative services and educational outreach to provide them with necessary for the guardians so that they can help them sound educational foundations and the number of students the school statistics academic year 2001 / 2002 (279) students, as was the opening of Omar Bin Al Khattab Institute for the Blind at the expense of the private sector during the academic year 1999 / 2000 it had the number of (11) students only, while the total number in 2006/2007 to (115) male and female students of the Blind in special classes each race individually and internal divisions for boys and girls and comparing the numbers of schools and the people, students and teachers between the beginning and end of the plan reflected the following:
The school year / elements education 1981/1982 1985/1986 rate of increase during the period) 81-85)
Schools 408 588 44 .1
People 4137 7069 70.9
Students 120718 218914 81.3
Teachers 5864 9793 67.0
The increased numbers of female students and envoys abroad where the numbers of 81/1982 .(1068) 85/1986 ,(2681), an increase of 151%.